Assuming much is required, and less is required, and in is required, the following results were found.

  • The New York Stock and Exchange Board’s 200th Anniversary

    It even exist? At the rate technology is proceeding, I’ll be surprised if stock exchanges are around 10 years from now, much less in 200 years. Happy 200th Anniversary New York Stock Exchange. Enjoy it while you can because you probably won’t have many...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-new-york-stock-and-exchange-boards-200th-anniversary
  • GFD Guide to Bull and Bear Markets in the 20th Century

    Because the world is currently experiencing one of its worst bear markets since the Great Depression, there is an even greater need to study past bull and bear markets to make long-term decisions about investing in the stock market. Information on bull...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/gfd-guide-to-bull-and-bear-markets-in-the-20th-century
  • A Century of Chinese Stocks and Bonds

    Global Financial Data has the most extensive database on historical stocks available anywhere in the world. GFD has collected data on stocks that listed on the London Stock Exchange from the 1600s until 2018. London was the financial center of the...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/a-century-of-chinese-stocks-and-bonds
  • The First and the Greatest: The Rise and Fall of the United East India Company

    The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), or the United East India Company, was not only the first multinational corporation to exist, but also probably the largest corporation in size in history. The company existed for almost 200 years, from its...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-first-and-the-greatest-the-rise-and-fall-of-the-united-east-india-company
  • The First and the Greatest: The Rise and Fall of the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie

    The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), or the United East India Company, was not only the first multinational corporation to exist, but also probably the largest corporation in size in history. The company existed for almost 200 years from its...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-first-and-the-greatest-the-rise-and-fall-of-the-vereenigde-oost-indische-compagnie
  • The Grand Junction Canal Co.: Three Bubbles for the Price of One

    The Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal was incorporated by Special Act of Parliament on April 30, 1793 to build a canal from Braunston to the River Thames. The stock for the canal went through three bubbles, in the 1790s, the 1810s and...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-grand-junction-canal-co-three-bubbles-for-the-price-of-one
  • Google and Priceline at $1000? Small Change, Buddy.

    With Google and Priceline surpassing $1000 (much less Berkshire Hathaway A shares trading at $175,000), people are amazed that stocks can trade at such high levels without being overvalued or losing liquidity, but in reality, compared with the past,...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/google-and-priceline-at-1000-small-change-buddy
  • Quandries over Corporate Actions at Global Financial Data

    Because of the breadth of data that Global Financial Data provides in its UK and US Stock Database, providing data from 1601 to 2018, GFD runs into problems of coverage that no other database encounters. Today, stocks trade thousands or even millions...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/quandries-over-corporate-actions-at-global-financial-data
  • Wars and Financial Panics: Global Bear Markets in the Twentieth Century

    This is the third in a series of blogs we are writing about global bear markets that have occurred over the past 400 years. Global Financial Data has calculated a World Stock Index that covers equities from 1602 until the present. The index included...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/wars-and-financial-panics-global-bear-markets-in-the-twentieth-century
  • 300 years of the Equity-Risk Premium

    The equity-risk premium (ERP) is one of the most important variables in finance. It tells investors how much a risky investment such as stocks returns relative to a risk-free investment such as government bonds. Any history of the equity premium shows...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/300-years-of-the-equity-risk-premium
  • An Index for the First Two Centuries of Stock Markets

    Global Financial Data has produced indices that cover global markets from 1601 until 1815 as a first step toward creating a World Index that provides data on equities from 1601 until 2018. As we have discussed in another blog, “The Fifth Financial Era:...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/an-index-for-the-first-two-centuries-of-stock-markets
  • The First Billion-Dollar Company

    Apple is fast approaching a market capitalization of $1 trillion. Their current market cap is about $900 million and an 11% increase in their stock price will make Apple the first $1 trillion company. It was only back in 1970 that the capitalization of...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-first-billion-dollar-company
  • Cubanomics: An Interesting Economy to Visit, but Even Bernie Sanders Wouldn’t Want to Live There

    I visited Cuba a few weeks before Castro passed away, and my visit to Cuba not only provided me with the opportunity to see a country frozen in time with American cars from the 1950s acting as taxis and a vision of what a country without any...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/cubanomics-an-interesting-economy-to-visit-but-even-bernie-sanders-wouldnt-want-to-live-there
  • Crazy Chris

    I met Chris while I was a broker. As everyone knows, brokers are salesmen who happen to deal in the stock market. It is better to know nothing about the stock market and be a good salesperson than to have twenty years’ experience in the stock market...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/crazy-chris
  • Fixed Income Bull and Bear Markets

    Bear markets are clearly defined: a decline of 20% or more in an equity market constitutes a bear market. By this definition, the United States had 18 bear markets in the 1900s. But what is a bull market? Global Financial Data (GFD) has supplemented...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/fixed-income-bull-and-bear-markets
  • The Equity Risk Premium

    The equity risk premium, the rate by which risky stocks are expected to outperform safe fixed-income investments, such as US government bonds and bills, is perhaps the most important figure in financial economics. The equity risk premium is the main...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-equity-risk-premium
  • The Century of Inflation

    The Twentieth century may be remembered as the century of excess. In every area, more things were done in the Twentieth century than in any other century in history, and in many cases, more than in all previous centuries combined. The Twentieth century...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-century-of-inflation
  • Which Came First, the Goose or the Golden Egg?

    RETURNING TO THE GOLD STANDARD IN FIVE EASY STEPS You hear a lot of people in the United States talking about returning to the Gold Standard today. With trillion-dollar annual government deficits, a declining dollar, and fears of inflation, many people...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/which-came-first-the-goose-or-the-golden-egg
  • Will America’s Outperformance Continue?

    Global Financial Data has generated indices on the United States and the World Index excluding the United States since 1792. This enables us to compare the performance of stocks in the United States with the rest of the world over the past 225 years....

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/will-americas-outperformance-continue
  • The Growth of the American Stock Market

    Global Financial Data has calculated the market cap of the United States stock market from 1791 until 2018. These calculations include not only the New York Stock Exchange, American Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, but regional exchanges, such as...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-growth-of-the-american-stock-market
  • The Future of Energy Prices: Lessons from 750 Years of History

    Today, the future of energy prices is as uncertain as ever. Whereas in the 1970s, there was a fear that the supply of oil could decline dramatically, causing future oil prices to rise, fracking and other technological innovations have increased oil...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-future-of-energy-prices-lessons-from-750-years-of-history
  • Can Saudi Arabia Save Itself?

    Fear is powerful. Especially when it comes to the economic forces in the world and tied to our quality of life. This basic concept is pertinent to not only those in first world countries, but maybe even more so to people in developing nations. When the...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/can-saudi-arabia-save-itself
  • Jacob Little and the First Stock Corner

    Jacob Little was the first and one of the greatest speculators on Wall Street. He engineered the first successful stock corner on the New York Stock Exchange in 1835, and was known as “Ursa Major,” or “the Great Bear of Wall Street.” Like any bear, he...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/jacob-little-and-the-first-stock-corner
  • The Currency Reform that Created Two Germanies

    One question I often receive about the data for the Germany is why the German stock and bond indices had a 90% decline in June 1948. At first, people think there is an error in the data, but German shareholders actually did lose 90% of their capital as...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-currency-reform-that-created-two-germanies
  • The Mississippi Bubble, or How the French Eliminated All Their Government Debt (So Why Can’t Bernanke?)

    The government is running a large deficit and it can’t cover its expenses. The government debt exceeds the GDP of the country. The central bank’s balance sheet is exploding as the government buys its own debt. Sound familiar? This was France in 1719....

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-mississippi-bubble-or-how-the-french-eliminated-all-their-government-debt-so-why-cant-bernanke
  • A History of Universal Currencies

    UNIVERSAL CURRENCIES In January 1999, members of the European Union introduced a single currency, the Euro. In 2002, the Euro will replace national currencies, and each country’s currency will cease to exist. It is our belief that within the next ten...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/a-history-of-universal-currencies
  • A Brief History of the Dow Jones Utility Average

    The Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA) is both the youngest of the three Averages calculated by Dow Jones and the most stable. During its 78-year existence, there have only been three major reorganizations of the index and only 40 companies have been...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/a-brief-history-of-the-dow-jones-utility-average
  • Expansionism: The Impact of the Fed’s Monetary Regime on the Equity Risk Premium

    Investors allocate their assets into different classes both to reduce risk through portfolio diversification and to increase returns by changing these allocations. Financial assets have traditionally been divided into stocks, bonds and bills;...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/expansionism-the-impact-of-the-fed-s-monetary-regime-on-the-equity-risk-premium
  • Los Angeles During the 1929 Stock Market Crash

    The Stock Market Crash of 1929 had a dramatic impact on the primary stock market indices as prices declined. The Dow Jones Industrial Average declined from 381.17 on September 3 to a low of 198.69 on November 13, a decline of 48%. The S&P Composite...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/los-angeles-during-the-1929-stock-market-crash
  • Argentina: The Ever-Emerging Market

    Argentina is one of the most interesting countries among emerging markets. Argentina was one of the ten richest countries in the world in the 1920s, but now doesn’t even make the top 50. Argentina was downgraded from emerging market status by MSCI to...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/argentina-the-ever-emerging-market
  • Abraham Lincoln Unites the East and the West

    Many people believe that Abraham Lincoln was the greatest President of the United States. Not only did his steadfast leadership help the United States to survive the Civil War, but as President he pursued his vision of a united country, free from...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/abraham-lincoln-unites-the-east-and-the-west
  • Ten Lessons for the Twenty-first Century Investor

    What lessons can we learn from the behavior of the world’s financial markets in the 20th Century that are useful to investors in the 21st Century? In our Guide to Bull and Bear Markets and our Guide to Total Returns, we provided a survey of the returns...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/ten-lessons-for-the-twenty-first-century-investor
  • Paying off Government Debt

    Using a data set on government debt that was previously unavailable, the article analyzes who bears the burden of government debt. The database includes 12 countries with both debt and GDP data on the countries stretching back over a century. The paper...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/paying-off-government-debt
  • The Five Eras of Financial Markets

    Global Financial Data has produced indices that cover global markets from 1601 until 2018. In organizing this data, we have discovered that the history of the stock market over the past 400 years can be broken up into four distinct eras when economic...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-five-eras-of-financial-markets
  • Stimulus for the 21st Century

    BARACK OBAMA HAS BEEN ELECTED president of the United States in the midst of the worst financial crisis in decades. Economic stimulation has been intense: The Troubled Asset Relief Program has used up $350 billion, and credit facilities from the...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/stimulus-for-the-21st-century
  • Publications Featuring GFD Data

    “Genius is a Bull Market.” John Kenneth Galbraith A partial list of articles that tell a story made possible by the data GFD provides.

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/publications-featuring-gfd-data
  • Global Financial Data’s Emerging Market Indices

    Global financial Data has calculated an index for Emerging Markets that far precedes any indices that are currently available. MSCI’s emerging market index begins in 1987. GFD’s Emerging Market Index begins in 1602. Though few people may realize it,...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/global-financial-data-s-emerging-market-indices
  • Could the American Stock Market’s Capitalization Soon be Twice GDP?

    The Great Bull Market of 2009 to 2019 continues to push the stock market to new highs. The capitalization of the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ is now about $37.5 trillion which is equal to 174% of America’s Gross Domestic Product. If the market...

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/could-the-american-stock-market-s-capitalization-soon-be-twice-gdp
  • The Market’s Thirty-Year Cycle Continues

    https://globalfinancialdata.com/the-market-s-thirty-year-cycle-continues

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